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Extraction can be carried out by an acid or alkaline treatment [33]. Extraction under acid treatment is usually applied for extraction of collagen type I from tissues of porcine or fish skin origin [34]. Acetic acid is the most common reagent for collagen extraction. The concentration of this acid will affect the final pH value changing the electrostatic interaction and structure. It also determines the solubility and extraction capacity from animal tissue [35]. A combination of both acidic and enzymatic treatment produces a higher and more efficient collagen extraction process [26]. Pepsin can be obtained from porcine gastric mucosa. This enzyme affects the telopeptidic region in the collagen molecule increasing its solubility in an acidic medium [36,37]. The use of ultrasound as an alternative method for collagen extraction does not change the molecule and facilitates the enzymatic action. This technology can be applied in different tissues such as fish skin and bovine tendons in order to produce higher collagen concentrations in shorter extraction times [38,39,40].

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In recent years, oral collagen supplementation has become popular as it has been increasingly marketed to consumers as an anti-aging product, because HC oral supplementation reaches the deeper layers of the skin and improves skin physiology and appearance increasing hydration, elasticity, firmness, wrinkle reduction, and skin rejuvenation [122,123] (Table 2).

HC has been used in processed foods such as sausages to replace pork fat at 50% level of replacement. The final product results had greater water holding capacity, better stability after cooking, and improved texture such as hardness and chewiness [129]. The use of fish HC in meat products such as buffalo patties, resulted in higher protein content, lower fat content, similar sensory acceptability, and better texture as compared to the buffalo patties without HC [130]. HC from bovine skin was used in combination with modified starch and guar gum in ham elaboration. Lower syneresis with 2.0% of HC final concentration in the product was reported as the best treatment [131].

Besides protecting helicopter troop assaults and supporting ground actions, the Mi-24 also protected convoys, using rockets with flechette warheads to drive off ambushes; performed strikes on predesignated targets; and engaged in "hunter-killer" sweeps. Hunter-killer Mi-24s operated at a minimum in pairs, but were more often in groups of four or eight, to provide mutual fire support. The Mujahideen learned to move mostly at night to avoid the gunships, and in response the Soviets trained their Mi-24 crews in night-fighting, dropping parachute flares to illuminate potential targets for attack. The Mujahideen quickly caught on and scattered as quickly as possible when Soviet target designation flares were lit nearby.

The rebels also quickly began to use Soviet-made and US shoulder-launched, man-portable air-defense system (MANPADS) missiles such as the Strela and Redeye which had either been captured from the Soviets or their Afghan allies or were supplied from Western sources. Many of them came from stocks that the Israelis had captured during wars with Soviet backed states in the Middle East. Owing to a combination of the limited capabilities of these early types of missiles, poor training and poor material condition of the missiles, they were not particularly effective. Instead, the RPG-7, originally developed as an antitank weapon, was the first effective countermeasure to the Hind. The RPG-7, not designed for air defence, had inherent shortcomings in this role. When fired at the angles needed to hit aerial targets, the back-blast could easily wound the shooter, and the inevitable cloud of smoke and dust made it easy for gunners to spot the shooter's position.[citation needed]

Three Mi-24s were used by Mobutu's army and were later acquired by the new Air Force of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[48] These were supplied to Zaire in 1997 as part of a French-Serbian contract. At least one was flown by Serbian mercenaries. One hit a power line and crashed on 27 March 1997, killing the three crew and four passengers.[49] Zimbabwean Mi-24s were also operated in coordination with the Congolese Army.

In 2008 and 2009, the Czech Republic donated six Mi-24s under the ANA Equipment Donation Programme. As a result, the Afghan National Army Air Corps (ANAAC) gained the ability to escort its own helicopters with heavily armed attack helicopters. ANAAC operates nine Mi-35s. Major Caleb Nimmo, a United States Air Force Pilot, was the first American to fly the Mi-35 Hind, or any Russian helicopter, in combat.[54][55] On 13 September 2011, a Mi-35 of the Afghan Air Force was used to hold back an attack on ISAF and police buildings.[56]

The Polish Helicopter Detachment contributed Mi-24s to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). The Polish pilots trained in Germany before deploying to Afghanistan and train with U.S. service personnel. On 26 January 2011, one Mi-24 caught on fire during take-off from its base in Ghazni. One American and four Polish soldiers evacuated unharmed.[57]

The Ethiopian Air Force operated about three Mil Mi-35 and ten Mil Mi-24D helicopter gunships in the Somali theatre. One was shot down near Mogadishu International Airport on 30 March 2007 by Somali insurgents.[61]

-Herb, Guntram Henrik. Nested identities : nationalism, territory, and scale. edited by Guntram H. Herb and David H. Kaplan. Lanham. Md. ; Oxford : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, c1999.

-Langfield, Michele. The Organ in the South: Preserving a Welsh Patagonian Heritage in Australia. In W.S. Logan, C. Long & J. Martin (eds), 3rd International Seminar Forum UNESCO: University and Heritage Proceedings Melbourme: Deakin University 1999 312-316.

-Roberts, Peta and Langfield, Michelle. Welsh Patagonians. In James Jupp The Australian People : an encyclopedia of the nation, its people and their origins. :2nd ed. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2001, 743-744.

-Williams, Cyril. Religion and Welsh nationality. In Religion and ethnicity; ed. by Harold Coward and Leslie Kawamura. Published for the Calgary Institute for the Humanities by Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1978, 151-169. 041b061a72


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